500 Words in Kogi language

kogi mountain

Dictionary of 500 Kogi words and mythological characters

Culled from various academic pieces by Geraldo Reichel-Dolmatoff.

z is pronounced generally like the j in jardin (French) and x as the ch in ach (German).

Reference is made as to which version ( Northern or Western slopes) the mythological character comes from. Reichel-Dolmatoff worked with the Mamas in constructing various diagrammatical models (i.e. the Loom model) which are also referred to in the meanings.

Abu SĂ© – one of the first six spiritual parents who originated spirit and thought, according to Ramon Gil’s exegesis. The other parents were Zaku SĂ©, Ade SĂ©, Kaku SĂ©, Jawa SĂ© and Jate SĂ©. ‘They created everything in spirit, in the non-material world. They were not people, not air, not anything, just idea.’

Ade SĂ© – see Abu SĂ© and SĂ©.

-ang – suffix found in feminine mythological names of ancient Tairona origin

abĂĄxsĂ« – black

ĂĄbuan – maternal?

abĂșci – white

abĂșci atĂ©ima – ‘white-big one’. Venus (EnduksĂĄma), daughter of Sun and Moon

abĂșldo – thin

abĂșldu – small

AhĂ­kwa/Hirvöíxa – son of EnduksĂĄma

AhuĂ­mal-dĂșe – village in the Beyond where those who die of ‘haemorrhages’ go to

AkĂ­n-due – one of the first 9 Lords of the universe to be born

AlauhuĂ­ku – in charge of all rituals connected with cultivated fields and wild-growing fruits. Lord of SSW, lord of animals, fire and dry season. Red body, tall & thin, large head. One of the sons of the Mother associated with the cardinal points. Youngest of all the lords but the wisest. Wears a garment of white cotton cloth

AldauhuĂ­ku – one of the first 9 Lords of the universe to be born, associated with the SE. ‘Lord of Trees’

AldĂșna HĂĄte – ‘spirit father’, mythical being associated with world level 9 in northern slopes version

AldĂșna MĂșlyi – ‘spirit cotton’, mythical being associated with world level 7 in northern slopes version

AldĂșna SĂĄnkalda – ‘spirit head’, mythical being associated with world level 8 in northern slopes version

AldĂșna Se-ne-nulang – ‘our spirit earth’, mythical being associated with world level 6 in northern slopes version

aldusĂĄnyi – left

alnĂĄua – zenith

alnĂĄua/arhuĂ­nese – temple

AlĂșna – pure thought, memory, spirit, soul, mind, imagination

aluna zakwa – fabric of Life; clothes

AlĂșna-yumang – mythical being associated with world level 8 in western slopes version

alĂșnan gĂ©ina – ‘ways of the soul’/pardonable emotions

alĂșnan kĂșxa – metaphysical reference to the ‘crossroads’ in a diagram based on solstice

alĂșnan kĂșxa-chi haba – ‘they are the mother of soul’s ears’

alusĂ©nka-chi – ‘good ways on the night side’; context: the loom model

aluxtatĂĄne-yĂ© – village in the Beyond where those who die from ‘cramps’ go to

arzĂ©kve – checkered

asĂ©izi – right

atĂ©ima – big

atsĂ«si – red

axalduka – hips or legs

aximunakalda agakuĂ© – ‘the part where one does the weaving’; lower bar of loom + sexual connotation

Bonga/Bunga – village (Bunkunagega) on the northern slopes being developed as a trading/health centre

BĂșnalyue – the first legendary MĂĄma to teach a group of disciples. See MukuĂĄnauiaishi

bĂșndzi – daughter; related to munsĂĄ

BĂșnkua-neuldang – mythical being associated with soil colour ‘white’

BĂșnkua-se – ‘the shining one’, one of the sons of the Mother-Goddess (white/penis) – son of HĂĄte KtakĂ©ne-ne-nulĂĄng and HĂĄba Se-ne-nulĂĄng. A Lord of the Universe – 18 in all according to the Western slopes version. He established the rules by which future mĂĄmas were chosen and educated, and is the personification of highest moral principles in Kogi ethics, thus the patron and spiritual guardian of the priesthood. One of the mythological figures who embody principals of light and justice

BunkuĂĄnyu mang – mythical being associated with world level 10 in western slopes version

Bunkunagega – full name of the village Bonga; means ‘to awake’ in Kogi

ceraĂș – related to the cluster of roots which signify maleness, testicles and procreation

Cerua – ceremonial site on the Sevilla River

ChendĂșkua – ceremonial centre of the Sierra Nevada on the Guatapuri river

dĂĄke – matriline

DashĂ­bia – wife of MalyĂ­neka-mĂĄma

Doana-neuldang – mythical being associated with world of sand and soil colour ‘yellowish’

DoanankuĂ­vi – a mountain created by the 4 sons of the Mother-Goddess at the head of the Tucurinca river, inside which was the first ceremonial house where novices trained for priesthood

Dondzi-neuldang – mythical being associated with soil colour ‘brownish’

dĂșe – older brother

DĂșe Nugi – a mythical sinner tied to Orion’s rack, a rapist

DĂșe SĂĄngui – one of the first 9 Lords of the universe to be born

dĂșga – daughter

DuginĂĄvi – ‘older brother jaguar’, great carver of ritual masks. He fights his father, Thunder Lord, steals his drum, and is banished to the barren Guajira peninsula

DuginĂĄvi akĂĄnkuin gau – ‘DuginĂĄvi made the kankuí’

dulĂĄma-kĂ©xa – a village in the Beyond

DzibĂșndziza – mythical being associated with those who harmed trees and fruits

Ă©ibi-ci hĂĄte – ‘Father of Maize’, another name for AlauhuĂ­ku

Eisua aluna zakwa askuima gau tei – ‘Alone one weaves one’s Fabric of Life’

eldunhualda – shed-stick; part of loom

Elnau-yang – mythical being associated with world level 9 in western slopes version

EnduksĂĄma – 1 of 4 daughters of MĂĄma Teiku; the planet Venus

gau/gaul – to make, create, initiate, consecrate

Gaulcovang/ Gaulchovang – the Great Mother, origin of all things, occ. referred to as Spider Woman

GaulkuchĂ©/GaulkuchĂ©xa – Lord of Death (whose realm lies in the snowfields)

Gauna-neuldang – mythical being associated with soil colour ‘green’

gĂĄya – concubine

gĂ©lda – pubic hairs

gĂ©ma – fire sticks

gĂ©ma abĂĄxsĂ« – black fire sticks, as carried by SeokĂșkui

gĂ©ma abĂșci – white fire sticks, as carried by SeizĂĄnkwa

gĂ©ma atsĂ«si – red fire sticks, as carried by AlauhuĂ­ku

gĂ©na/gĂ©ina – way, direction

Guacanaoma – paramount chief of the Taironas, to whose autjority the naomas were subject.

guĂĄmelda – a green parrot

gĂŒidĂ©nku – a squirrel (Sciurus sp.)

GĂŒimelĂĄke – ceremonial centre of the Sierra Nevada

Gonawindua/gĂŒinavĂ­ndua – the peak area of the sierra, the snowfields

Guingala – helper and companion (in the centre) to MulkuĂ«xe

guisguina – small pointed stick, like a thick needle, used in weaving

gĂŒĂ­shi – basketry tray used by a novice to cover his head when leaving the house at night

gula – arms; also of garments

gux (root) – signifies fire and/or sexual energy

guxtsĂ©-ci nungĂĄ – ‘shadow of fire’, cold black fire of the netherworld, realm of Black Sun( Father Night)

Gwi – rock, structure, support, column. Gwi had to be fashioned by Serankwa according to the law of SĂ© as part of the organisation of the material world. Gonawindua, the peak area of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, was one result of this organisation.

HĂĄba prefix – mother (as in HĂĄba Gaulcovang)

HĂĄba AhĂșnyika – ruler of 7th universal level in the Western slopes version

HĂĄba Auine-nulĂĄng – a mother of the 4th universal level in the Western slopes version

HĂĄba BunkuĂĄne-ne-nulĂĄng – ruler, with HĂĄte Sai-cĂĄka, of the 6th universal level in the Western slopes version

HĂĄba Disi-se-yuntanĂĄ – a mother of the 4th universal level in the Western slopes version

HĂĄba EnkuĂĄne-ne-nulang – mistress of 5th universal level in the Western slopes version

HĂĄba GuxĂĄnexan/MukulĂș-dzĂși – representative of HĂĄba Gaulcovang who grants priests some of their powers

HĂĄba GuxsĂ©nse – HĂĄba Gaulcovang as the mother of fire, lit. ‘mother fire-less’

haba ha-itĂ© – ‘Mother-sits-here’ (ref: a point on a loom diagram)

HĂĄba HakungĂ©na – mythical being associated with world level 2 in northern slopes version

HĂĄba HangĂ©ina – an evil Mother

HĂĄba HaxtoxĂ© – ‘Mother Stone Lineage’

HĂĄba KanĂ©-nulang – mistress of 2nd layer in the netherworld ‘whither evil souls go’

HĂĄba KĂĄnexang – the ‘Mother of the Drum’, mistress of the 3rd layer in the netherworld

HĂĄba KaxsintĂĄna – ‘mother of the lineage of green trees’, mythical being associated with world level 4 in northern slopes version

HĂĄba KenyazĂ© – ruler, with HĂĄte AhuĂ­neka-tanĂĄ, of 8th universal level in Western slopes version

Haba MameyumĂĄng – presides over ‘the end of the world’; ref. metaphysical model of the nuhue

HĂĄba MokĂ©ta – wife of SeizĂĄnkwa

HĂĄba MĂșli – wife of MulkwĂĄ-kukuĂ­, the only benevolent couple of the netherworlds

HĂĄba MutsĂ­ua – wife of SeokĂșkui, mother of consecration

HĂĄba NĂĄbia – Mother-jaguar

HĂĄba NabobĂĄ – ‘mother jaguar-eye’. Evil. Represents female sexuality in its most uncontrolled form. Many children by SintĂĄna, devouring some at birth. Taught women to weave bags

HĂĄba NĂ­nulang – the mother of HĂĄba Gaulcovang according to some sources, see ni

HĂĄba NyĂ«xan – wife of MĂĄma MususĂ­ in the highest of the upper worlds

HĂĄba SaldĂĄn – mythical being associated with world level 3 in northern slopes version

HĂĄba Sayagaueye-yumĂĄng – a mother of the 4th universal level in the Western slopes version

HĂĄba Se-kalalĂ­mue – another name for HĂĄba MutsĂ­ua

HĂĄba Se-ne-nulĂĄng – an aspect of the Great Mother here married to HĂĄte KtakĂ©ne-ne-nulĂĄng

HĂĄba Se-nyuĂ­-yumang – ‘mother-penis-sun-woman’; original teacher of how to use the kankuĂ­

HĂĄba Se-yubang/HĂĄba Se – (mother penis) – an aspect of the Great Mother when married to NimatĂĄi-yubang

HĂĄba SĂ­validsĂ­nue – HĂĄba Gaulcovang as the mother of the snowfields

HĂĄba SivulĂĄng – mother of skin & broken bones i.e. dismemberment. Rules 4th layer in netherworld

HĂĄba SivulyuvĂĄng – another name for Gaulcovang

hag/haggi – stone

hana kuxa – one of the 4 main posts (nugikuĂ­) of the nuhue with priestly significance

hĂĄnkua-kĂșkui – adult members of mĂĄmas household who supervise novices

hĂĄnkwa – chief/administrator

Hankwa-tuxe – one of the 4 original patrilines. Associated animal: puma. Lord: SeizĂĄnkwa

HarldĂčma-yang – mythical being associated with world of stones and level 5 in western slopes version

HĂĄte (prefix) – father

HĂĄte AhuĂ­neka-tanĂĄ – ruler, with HĂĄba KenyazĂ©, of 8th universal level in Western slopes version

HĂĄte KtakĂ©ne-ne-nulĂĄng – husband of Gaulcovang in her aspect as HĂĄba Se-ne-nulĂĄng

HĂĄte MulkuĂĄ-kukui – a solar being

HĂĄte Sai-cĂĄka – ruler, with HĂĄba BunkuĂĄne-ne-nulĂĄng, of 6th level in Western slopes version

HĂĄte SalĂĄlu & HĂĄba HĂĄrvalĂ«xan – live in the 3rd layer of the netherworld under HĂĄba KĂĄnexang

HĂĄte Sei – Father-night, ruler of the 4th upper world

HĂĄte SivaxĂĄli & MulkwakĂĄna – cannabalistic couple of 4th layer in netherworld with green skin and green clothes

hatĂșkula – circular mirror of black stone (as carried by SeokĂșkui)

heisĂĄn-dĂșe – one of the 9 villages of death through which the soul passes

HeisĂ©i – death

heisĂ©i-chi alusĂ©shka – ‘Death-of-the-Left-Side’; context: the loom model

HeisĂ©i-chi kuĂ­buldu – ‘Land of the Dead’, lit. ‘death’s little houses’

heisĂ©i-chi nyĂ­-zula – death’s white water – context: the loom model

hĂ©lyi – honeycombs

hĂ©lyis kaldaukĂĄ – bench?

HindukĂĄnni – 1 of 4 daughters of MĂĄma Teiku

HinduksĂĄma – 1 of 4 daughters of MĂĄma Teiku

hintĂșl-dĂșe – village in the Beyond where those who die from ‘pains in the joints’ go to

hisĂĄ-bĂĄ – one of the 9 villages of death through which the soul passes

hisĂĄ-meiyi – one of the 9 villages of death through which the soul passes

hisĂĄn-dĂșe – another village or way station encountered by the soul in the Beyond

hisan-kaxa – one of the 9 villages of death through which the soul passes

hisĂĄui kaizĂ© – River of Death

hisei keihi – ‘delivering the dead’; a rite performed by the Mamas to ease a soul’s suffering ; ‘loosening of the dead’; a 9 day ritual undergone by a wandering soul

hotĂĄkin-dĂșe – a village in the Beyond where all ‘comisarios’ go to

huĂĄldakema-dĂșe – village in the Beyond where those who die from ‘pain in the jaw’ go to

huangkuan-dĂșe – village in the Beyond where those who die from ‘vomiting’ go to

hubi – small enclosure in the ceremonial house where novices used to live

hugĂșkui – another reference to MulkuĂ«xe. Translates as ‘Comisario Mayor’

hukĂșkui – chiefs/owners

HukĂșkui-tuxe – one of the 4 original patrilines. Associated animal: owl. Lord: SeokĂșkui

HukumĂ©izi – ceremonial centre of the Sierra Nevada

HukumĂ©izi-tuxe – one of the 4 original patrilines. Associated animal: jaguar. Lord: SintĂĄna

HĂșl-dake – one of the 4 original matrilines. Associated animal: deer. Madre:SivaldungĂĄya

husĂĄxa – one of the 9 villages of death through which the soul passes

huve/hubve – hut, probably the small ritual hut for male initiation

HĂșviexan – one of 2 younger brothers to MĂĄma Teiku

huxkĂșkui – another reference to MulkuĂ«xe. Translates as ‘Comisario Mayor’

ishkuĂ©ldyi – reborn in the spiritual sense. See seivĂĄke

Jate SĂ© – one of the first six spiritual parents who originated spirit and thought, according to Ramon Gil’s exegesis. The other parents were Abu SĂ©, Zaku SĂ©, Ade SĂ©, Kaku SĂ© and Jawa SĂ©.

Jawa SĂ© – another of the first six spiritual parents. See above and SĂ©.

kĂĄbalmal-dĂșe – village in the Beyond where those who die from ‘dizziness’ go to

kabĂĄsi – to sleep

KabĂșnma-yang – mythical being associated with world level 4 in western slopes version

kĂĄggaba – Primarily, the name the Kogi call themselves, i.e. ‘The People’. Also, in one cosmological account (Western slopes version) the soft-boned prehuman people born to Gaulcovang.

kĂĄggaba kuĂ­tsi – elongated necklace bead of reddish stone

kĂĄggi – earth

kĂĄkĂ«lya – sexually experienced

Kaku SĂ©- one of the first six spiritual parents who originated spirit and thought, according to Ramon Gil’s exegesis. The other parents were Abu SĂ©, Zaku SĂ©, Ade SĂ©, Jate SĂ© and Jawa SĂ©. See SĂ©.

kalasuna – men’s wide trousers. From Spanish calzones

kalaukĂĄ – small wooden bench fashioned by a mourner

kalditĂĄma-dĂșe – village in the Beyond where those who die from ‘thinness’ go to

kaldsexĂĄma-dĂșe – village in the Beyond where those who die from ‘itch’ go to

kalebitĂș – peccary

kalguashĂ­zan – digestive tract?

kalguasĂ­za – images of everything that was to exist – created in alĂșna by Gaulcovang.

kalkuĂĄna – sword-shaped wooden club, as carried by SeizĂĄnkwa

kĂĄlta – book, from Spanish carta

kĂĄlta bĂșci – white book

kalvasĂĄnkua – world axis i.e. the spindle thrust into the universe by the Mother (a phallic concept)

kalvasĂĄnkua-ci mĂșzi – world axis-seat, another name for kankuĂ­

kalvasankwa – central post; the post Gaulcovang put through the earth, after the creation

kĂĄlyi – firewood

kama – a spiritual power achieved during fasting or meditation

kĂĄma – strength

kĂĄmuke-mĂĄma – one of three mamĂĄs who serve as counsel to the soul questioned by death

kan (root) – signifies ‘old,ancient’

Kan-zalyintĂĄna – a mythical priest

kangĂ©kua – beehive shaped?

Kangusina – mother vagina, personification of the Great Mother

KankuĂĄna-neuldang – mythical being associated with world of trees and soil colour ‘brown’

kankuĂ­ – 2 crossed sticks used to tell time by the sun?

karakacĂș – antlers

kĂĄsan – feet?

KasindĂșkua – principal mythical jaguar priest; a son of the Mother, a shaman and healer but abuses powers by turning to rape. Stands in sewa relationship with SeokĂșkui

KassaĂșgi – a mythical Father

KasĂșmma/KasĂ©mma/KatsĂșma – occasional names for the Great Mother, HĂĄba Gaulcovang

KaxsĂĄta/KaxshĂĄta – SeizĂĄnkwa as Lord of Earthquakes (northern slopes version)

KaxtasĂ­nma-yang – mythical being associated with world of green trees and level 6 in western slopes version

KaxyĂșno-mang – mythical being associated with world level 3 in western slopes version

kazĂ© – shore, riverbank

KimĂĄku – one of the first 9 Lords of the universe to be born

KogtĂłma-yang – mythical being associated with world level 11 in western slopes version

kuĂĄla tĂĄsi – plantains

kuilĂ­nsa – a wasp that accompanies a recently deceased soul

KuisbĂĄngui – Lord of Thunder

kuishgĂĄmake – one of the 9 villages of death through which the soul passes

kuĂ­si – to dance

kuĂ­ska – dancer

kuĂ­vi zesi – priestly novices, abstinents; also moro

kuku/kukul – root word meaning ‘ancient stone

kukuba – ‘right shoulder’ of the loom (looking from the front)

KukumĂ©izu – son of SeizĂĄnkwa and HĂĄba MokĂ©ta – first man to wear a garment of woven cloth

kulca – seed

kulchalyĂ­a – one of the 4 main posts (nugikuĂ­) of the nuhue with priestly significance

KumĂ­gua – concubine (gĂĄya) to the sun in the 3rd upper layer

KuncĂĄ-ne-yumĂĄng – one of 2 wives of MulkuĂ«xe; note kulca means seed

Kunca-vitauĂ©ya – ‘seed-half-span’, meaning penis

Kunca-vitauĂ©ya – Lord of the NE, of water, rainy seasons, rock crystal and owner of seminal energy

kunca/kurca seed, semen, stock, origin

kuncama – heart (and the intersecting central poles of a loom)

Kunchavita-uĂ©ya – one of the first 9 Lords of the universe to be born; associated with the SW

Kurc-tuxe – one of the 4 original patrilines. Associated animal: opossum. Lord: Kuncavita

LasacĂ­ – helper and companion ( in the centre) to MulkuĂ«xe

makasue alduna – ‘life’s fabric’; of a woman

mĂĄkto – a large opossum (Didelphis marsupialis)

makĂș – lords

MakĂș KasindĂșkua – one of 3 Jaguar Lords in the 5th universal level in the Western slopes version

MakĂș NoĂĄna-se – another of 3 Jaguar Lords in the 5th universal level in the Western slopes version

MakĂș Peli – son of MĂĄma Teiku

malda – thin transverse rod used in weaving

maldashĂ­zan – umbilical cord?

MalkĂĄ-yubang – (spider woman); daughter of NimatĂĄi-yubang and Gaulcovang as HĂĄba Se

malkwa – ‘Spider Boy’

MĂĄlkwa-yang – HĂĄba Gaulcovang as the mother of weaving

malyĂ­neka-mĂĄma – one of three mamĂĄs who serve as counsel to the soul questioned by death

mĂĄma kaizĂ© – River of the Sun

MĂĄma Miguel (MigĂ­zi) – NolavĂ­ta principal informant of Preuss (anthropologist)

MĂĄma MususĂ­ – the Wasp Priest, inhabits the highest of the upper worlds with wife HĂĄba NyĂ«xan

MĂĄma NekĂĄn – elder brother to MĂĄma Teiku

MĂĄma NukĂĄnna & SĂĄlexang – cannabalistic couple of 4th layer in netherworld with green skin and green clothes

MĂĄma NyĂ«xan – one of 2 younger brothers to MĂĄma Teiku

MĂĄma nyuĂ  abĂĄxsĂ« – ‘priest-sun-black’, lord of the nadir and elder brother to MulkuĂĄkukui

MĂĄma nyuĂ­ – ‘priest-sun’; the sun, see MulkuĂĄkukui

mama nyui abaxse – ‘the black sun’, i.e. after sunset

mama nyui zakwan gau – ‘the sun is weaving’

MĂĄma SĂĄlue – father of SalĂ­ma

MĂĄma Teiku – important personage of the 3rd upper world

MĂĄma-neuldang – mythical being associated with world of the sun and soil colour ‘dark red’

mama-rĂłngo – refers to sun in religious and astronomical context

mĂĄman gĂ©ina – ‘priestly ways’

Mamarongo – ceremonial site on the Tucurinca River

mĂĄmas – priests

mĂĄmas-kĂĄxa – sun’s mouth; great chasm in the west which swallows the sun (an infernal image)

mĂĄmashkĂĄxa – ‘the end of the world’ presided over by Haba MameyumĂĄng

Mamasingula – sacred site on the Hukumeizi River

Manavi – one of the sun’s messengers (cabos) associated with the North, helper and companion ( in the centre) to MulkuĂ«xe

mĂĄni maldauxĂ©? – ‘where have you been?’

MankuĂĄma-yumang – mythical being associated with world level 7 in western slopes version

mĂĄua kaizĂ© – River of Tears

MaukuĂ­ – toad; Sun’s first celestial wife (Bufo marinus) soon rejected because of adultery

maukuĂ­ – slang for vagina

maukuĂ­-kalda – horn shaped roof apex of the nuhue

meyĂ­zu – double sea shells; from Spanish mellizos/ twins

mihai paca – Coelogynis paca

mita-uĂ©ya – half-span

MitamdĂș – one of the 4 original matrilines. Associated animal: snake. Madre: MitamsĂĄma, wife of Kunca-vitauĂ©ya

mixa-mixa – ‘hurry, hurry’

moro – young man trained in priestly ways

moxshĂ­nkala – bones?

muĂĄn – centre

mugaxa – ‘right hip’ of the loom (the cross at bottom left looking at it from the front)

mugĂ­ – agouti (Dasyprocta)

Muku-lĂș-dzi – HĂĄba Gaulcovang in her image as Mother of Pottery

MukuĂĄnauiaishi – valley where BĂșnalyue and disciples established the centre for training novices

mul (root) – signifies to light, brilliance, energy implying goodness/heavenly justice

mulatĂĄui-yĂ© – a village in the Beyond

MulkuĂĄ-ne-yumĂĄng – one of 2 wives of MulkuĂ«xe – note mul relates to light/heavenly justice

MulkuĂĄkukui – ‘day-chief’ (see mĂĄma nyuĂ­), lord of the zenith

mulkuĂĄkve – prayer-like formulas, containing the religious code, quoted and discussed in private

MulkuĂ«xe – ‘white-testicle’, one of the mythological figures who embody principals of light and justice; a solar being (see mul), personifies the sun, said to look like a red horse; associated with rituals referring to training of priestly novices (kuĂ­vi zesi); first son of the Mother and solar Lord; has 2 wives; KuncĂĄ-ne-yumĂĄng & MulkuĂĄ-ne-yumĂĄng; has 4 testicles coloured white, black, red and translucent; in centre, between AlauhuĂ­ku/Kunca-vitauĂ©ya, SeokĂșkui/SeizĂĄnkwa ; sits at centre (of temple/universe/womb) accompanied by Teiku, another solar being; sometimes referred to as huxkĂșkui or hugĂșkui; the principal lord to promulgate the Law of the Mother

MulkwĂĄ-kukuĂ­ – ‘whiteness chief’. Taught people how to spin. Wife HĂĄba MĂșli.

multĂłma-yĂ© – a village in the Beyond

multsĂĄma-dĂșe – village in the Beyond where those who die of ‘swellings’ go to

multĂșbia and hisĂĄnna – wives to kĂĄmuke-mĂĄma

mulyigĂĄba matĂ©le – ‘words confused’; refers to first attempts of humans to speak

mulyigĂĄba-kaxa – village of death where disputes and litigations are judged

mulyigĂĄba/muligĂ©ba – refers to origins of human speech

mulyigĂĄban gĂ©ina – ‘ways of words’ /speech – connects MulkuĂ©xe with the Mother

mĂșmu – messengers. Death’s representatives in the Beyond

mĂșndzi – ‘woman’ in familiar conversation as opposed to sewĂĄ. Related to munsĂĄ

munsĂĄ – dawn, also true moment of creation, also vagina

munsĂ©isi – to dawn

munsi – light

musushĂ­ – huge yellow wasp that persecutes a recently deceased soul if recaltricant

na sewĂĄ – ‘my husband/wife/spouse’

nab/neb/nĂ©bbi – jaguar

NĂĄbia – feline monster and wife of NĂĄmaku

NabobĂĄ – jaguar eye

NabsĂ«si – red jaguar

nakuĂ­za – ‘he who forgot’; a state of unlearning achieved by a seivĂĄke person

nam (root) – refers to jaguar, hence NĂĄmaku, NamsĂ ui etc.. See nab/neb/nĂ©bbi

NĂĄmaku – one of 3 feared Jaguar Lords in the 5th universal level in Western slopes version

nĂĄmatu abĂĄxsĂ« – a black cap

NamsĂ ui – jaguar-devourer

nĂĄni – ‘a younger brother’

naoma – local leaders of the Taironas. Their duties, and authority, were similar to those of the mĂĄmas today. The naomas of a region were subject to a paramount chief called the Guacanaoma.

nĂ©an birĂł – huge door in the Beyond encountered by the wandering soul

neb-sĂ­za one of the 3 felines of the dry season which represent Orion

neb-skiz – as above

neb-tĂĄsi – as above

nĂ«bbela – a plant that grows only on the pĂĄramo highlands (Espeletia sp.)

nĂ©bbi abĂĄxsĂ« – black jaguars, apparently quite common in Colombia

nĂ©bbikve – ‘Jaguar People’. Generally evil

ni – water

ni-dulĂșma – ‘water foam’; refers to part of a temple

nĂ­-nulang/sei-nulang – sun-earth/night-earth. Our world – the 5th layer sit. between lower & upper worlds

NimatĂĄi-yubang – husband to Gaulcovang in her aspect as HĂĄba Se-yubang

nĂ­nulang shĂ­za – ‘our earth thread’ (metaphysical ref.) – connects beings with Great Mother

nivan-kukui – snow peaks

noĂĄbi dĂșe – ‘Brother Snow’; the highest peaks in the Sierra Nevada

Noana-neuldang – mythical being associated with world of wet clay and soil colour ‘yellow’

NoĂĄna-se – ‘wet-penis’,younger brother to KasindĂșkua, associated with incest, sodomy & ex-prisoners

nugaxalda – ‘left hip’ of the loom (the cross at bottom right looking at it from the front)

NugĂ©-nake – one of the 4 original matrilines. Associated animal: armadillo. Madre: NurlayatakĂĄn

Nugi tuxe – a lineage whose members are known to be stocky

nugikuĂ­ – posts of the nuhue

nugikuĂ­the – 2 central posts of a nuhuĂ©

nuhuĂ© – world-house, ceremonial house , men’s house

nuhĂșna-dĂșe – one of the 9 villages of death through which the soul passes

nuhĂșnash-gĂ©xa – one of the 9 villages of death through which the soul passes

nĂșlini – to rock, to weigh, to balance

nulu – knee (leading to concept of articulation?)

nulĂșka/yulĂșka – balance, agreement

nĂșmi – anus. MĂĄmas-nĂșmi sometimes used for mĂĄmas-kĂĄxa

nundushĂ­ – a yellow-bellied dove

nungua si mulyihi seisin – ‘the shadow weaves at night’; hisei keihi

NurldauzĂ­va – wife of HĂĄte Sei

nusĂĄbasu-kve – ‘bad people’

nĂșsagĂ«tse – ‘ugly’; first words of humans after mulyigĂĄba matĂ©le

NutsĂĄlue – mythical being. Meaning unknown

nuxa/nuka – sickle shaped visor associated with shamans

nuxsusua – marine bi-valves

nyĂ«xka – to plant

nyuĂ­-nulang – water-earth

nyuĂ­ – sun or gold

nyĂși abĂĄxse – ‘Black Sun’; lives in the west with HĂĄte SĂ©i and Sei-kukui

nyuĂ­-nulang – sun/earth, the 3rd from the top of the upper worlds, each with its own sun

nyĂșian gĂ©ina – ‘solar ways’

nyuikĂĄba-yĂ© – a village in the Beyond

nyuĂ­n guĂĄxe – ‘to measure the sun’ (by the shadow caused by a kankuĂ­ ?)

pĂĄnkatsa – (ancient Tairona); the foot end of the world spindle

pĂșne – an incense

punkusa (and shishi) – books which contain the law. They are possessed by Seynekun.

sacĂ­ta – rabbit

sai – night

Sai-neuldang – mythical being associated with our earth and soil colour ‘black’

Sai-tanĂĄ – (night lineage); the only supernatural figure who knew how humans would look

SĂĄka SĂ­nsi – grandmother rat – another possible name for wife of SeizĂĄnkwa

SalĂ­ma – wife of MĂĄma Teiku and daughter of MĂĄma SĂĄlue

SĂĄmexan/SĂĄmmeya – shadow woman, the moon. Wife to the unnamed sun in nyuĂ­-nulang

sankalda – head

sĂĄunan-gĂ© – a village in the Beyond

SĂĄungĂ«lda – a mythical priest

saxkalda – weaving implement; heavy sword that battens down the weft-pick

SĂ© – the core of everything. ‘The original laws, the fundamental principles, are in SĂ©. SĂ© has no beginning, it has always existed. It is spiritual existence, the spiritual principle of existence. SĂ© is not a person, not a thing. It is the sum of things. SĂ© is complex. SĂ© brought the material world into being, but it embraces far more than that. SĂ© organises everything so as to create harmony.’ Ramon Gil – see Spirituality and Materiality.

se-n-dĂșza – the white stone testicle of SeokĂșkui

SĂ©-ne-nulang – ‘our actual earth’, mythical being associated with world level 5 in northern slopes version

Se-nenĂșma-yang – mythical being associated with our earth and world level 2 in western slopes version

se-tĂĄme – ‘penis large’; the black stone testicle of SeokĂșkui

se-tame abĂ„xsĂ« – the black stone testicle of AlauhuĂ­ku

se-tame atsĂ«si – the red stone testicle of AlauhuĂ­ku

Se-yubang/HĂĄba Se – the original name of the Great Mother according to some mĂĄmas

sĂ©an gĂ©ina – ‘nocturnal ways’

sĂ«gĂ­ – deer (Odocoileus sp.)

seguika – ‘left shoulder’ of the loom (looking from the front)

Sei-baxe-degaukĂĄ – (night-black-leading?)- Gaulcovang in a Western slopes version

Sei-kukui – Night Lord

SĂ©i-nake – one of the 4 original matrilines. Associated animal: peccary. Madre: NunkĂĄlyiyuxa

sei-nulang – the 4th upper world i.e. immediately above our world, ruled by HĂĄte Sei

Sei-yunmang – mythical being associated with netherworld and world level 1 in western slopes version

SeihukĂșkui – Lord of the Western Regions

sĂ©imake-mĂĄma – one of three mamĂĄs who serve as counsel to the soul questioned by death

sĂ©inulang – ‘night-worlds

seivĂĄke – perfect, the utmost a soul can achieve in its lifetime

seivĂĄkein gĂ©ina – ‘ways of perfection’/innocent rebirth

SĂ©ivaxe HĂĄba – mythical being associated with world level 1 in northern slopes version

sĂ©iza – metal coloured, silvery. See SeizĂĄnkwa

sĂ©iza-zĂĄua – black knife, as carried by Kunca-vitauĂ©ya

sĂ©izaluxa atsĂ«si – red sword-like club carried by AlauhuĂ­ku

SeizĂĄnkwa – ‘bright colour-chief’, son of the Mother and Earth Lord – associated with the NE.

SĂ©izua – ceremonial centre of the Sierra Nevada

SekalĂĄlimue – Mother of Tukua-shĂ­na – lives at nivan-kukui and at the rivers

sekuĂ­ atsĂ«si – axe of red stone carried by AlauhuĂ­ku

sekuĂ­ bĂĄxsĂ«/sedĂșntsi – axe of black stone as carried by SeokĂșkui

sekuĂ­ buci – axe of translucent stone as carried by Kunca-vitauĂ©ya

sekuĂ­ tĂĄsi – axe of green stone as carried by SeizĂĄnkwa

SekuizbĂșchi – a mythical Father, master of incest, homosexuality and promiscuity

sĂ«lda – opposition

sĂ«lda kuxa – one of the 4 main posts (nugikuĂ­) of the nuhue with priestly significance

SĂ«lda-bauku – 1 of 4 daughters of MĂĄma Teiku

sĂ«lda-l-due – one of the 4 main posts (nugikuĂ­) of the nuhue with priestly significance

sĂ«ldasu-kve – people who had ‘given a bad example’

Sentura Gwiawimundwa – the law, the knowledge of the law of SĂ© and its execution in spirit.

SeokĂșkui – ‘night chief’, Lord of the West, Lord of the trees and all things black

Serankwa – the masculine principle which combines with Seynekun, the feminine principle. Serankwa was the principle of authority, charged with organising things according to the principles of SĂ©.

sĂ«sa – arrow

sesakalda – heddle-rod in weaving

sĂ«sĂĄke – euphemism for phallus. From sĂ«sa – arrow

sĂ«ssĂĄxein gĂ©ina – ‘the trails that lead downward’ (spiritually)

sewĂĄ – alliance or, in family, spouse. Thus na sewĂĄ – my spouse. Also, ‘permits’ given as power objects (stones, beads, minerals) by spirit-owners of Nature to novices etc.

Seynekun – the feminine principle which combines with Serankwa, the masculine principle. Seynekun is fertility. It is Seynekun who possesses the books, shishi and punkusa, which contain the law.

shĂĄxalda-dĂșe – village in the Beyond where those who die from ‘pains in the bones’ go to

shĂ­ – thread

shishi (and punkusa) – books which contain the law. They are possessed by Seynekun.

shĂ­ma-kaxa – village of death (one of nine) where the soul is tied up with ropes

ShimarĂșa – a mythical priest

shishĂ­bia – wife of sĂ©imake-mĂĄma

shivĂĄlda – lit. ‘little veins’ – a point in the loom model with metaphysical connotation

shubuldĂșe – the great temple of GaulkuchĂ©

sikuĂĄxalda – long horizontal bar (SeizĂĄnkwa and SeokĂșkui carry the world on one)

singerlĂ© – thank you

sĂ­nsi – a rat

SintĂĄna – the first human being/black- faced jaguar (variously)

sivalda – skin, a garment

skĂłko – a yellowish hare?

ssĂĄi-dĂșe (?) – village in the Beyond where those who die ‘unconscious and suddenly’ go to

stĂĄxalda-dĂșe – village in the Beyond where those who die from ‘pains in the back’ go to

subutuĂ­la – the water opossum (Chironectes)

sĂșgi – lime-stick

sĂșgi-gĂ©ina – ‘limestick ways’(taken from a ritualistic/philosophical context)

sui sĂ©ishi – ‘to feel cold’, in sense of having mastered emotions. See seivĂĄke

sukalda – spindle

sĂșkindĂșe – another village or way station encountered by the soul in the Beyond

sumna-xalda – ‘at noon thing’, ancient Tairona for kankuĂ­

SunkĂĄna-neuldang – mythical being associated with soil colour ‘red’

SurldabĂ©y – one of the sun’s messengers (cabos) associated with the South

suvĂ©ihi – to sing

suvĂ©inka – singer

takbi – snake, also Scorpio

Takina – ceremonial site on the San Miguel River

tambos – ‘wayside stations’ that provide shelter to travellers along the longer stretches of road between villages. Each tambo has cooking jars and firewood stored in it, as well as a small adjacent field from which a traveller can harvest the food needed to prepare a meal.

Taminaka – mythological landscape near Mamasingula

tĂĄna – lineage

tarbi – old, venomous but wise; rattlesnake; the constellation visited by the sun at winter solstice

Te-yubang – daughter of NimatĂĄi-yubang and Gaulcovang as HĂĄba Se-yubang

Teiku – related to MulkuĂ«xe, maybe the same being

tĂ©izua – the ancient Tairona language, still used in certain ritual contexts, stems from ceraĂș

tĂșbi – type of beetle prescribed as food for novices during the first 9 years of education

tukua-shĂ­na singulĂĄka – equates to alusĂ©nka-chi

tukuashĂ­za – ‘creek-thread’ (metaphysical reference)

tukuashĂ­zan ĂĄbu – ‘grandmother of tukuashĂ­zan’; context: the loom model

tukuashĂ­zan gĂ©ina – waterways, irrigation systems; arterial, urethral, digestive systems

tusĂșlu abĂĄxsĂ« – black cotton cap (as worn by SeokĂșkui)

tĂșxe – patriline

Ășba sĂ©shi – the black seeds of Cardiosperma

UbatĂĄshi – (literally, ‘blue eye’), a mythical tribe

uka – ‘sweet-loving’, as in a young woman

ukĂĄ – coati + the constellation (the Pleiades) visited by the sun at summer solstice

ulumsĂ­za – another name for sĂ©iza-zĂĄua

Ășlyi guan – a type of bird (Penelope sp.)

vĂ©ikve – cotton cap

vita/bita – half/half measure

yulĂșka – ‘to be in agreement/harmony with’, theprocess of establishing balance

Zaku SĂ©- one of the first six spiritual parents who originated spirit and thought, according to Ramon Gil’s exegesis. The other parents were Abu SĂ©, Ade SĂ©, Jate SĂ©, Kaku SĂ© and Jawa SĂ©. See SĂ©.

zĂĄkuan-gĂ©ina – ‘cloth ways’ (taken from a ritualistic/philosophical context)

zakwa – men’s sacklike shirt – takes 5 skeins to make

zakwanci asigi – bobbin-rod or shuttle – carries the pick of weft back and forth, ‘male of the fabric’

zakwandalda – loom

Zalyin-tĂĄna – father of SĂĄka SĂ­nsi

zĂĄlzi – foreigner

ZantĂĄna – one of the first 9 Lords of the universe to be born

zueldĂșxa – state of youthful perfection, purity, after ishkuĂ©ldyi

Author: lossofgravity